I'll try to be pragmatic with my advice and stick to what I believe to be good practice based on engineering principles and experience.
In an ideal world where we were only concerned with long transmission life we would completely contain the chain in an oil rich environment - with the dirt kept out. This approach was popular at one time with Sturmey Archer hub gears and a fully enveloping chain ‘bath'. These days most of us are more concerned with keeping the weight of our bike down and our expensive gear changing mechanisms on show - in order to keep it running efficiently and enhance its useful life. How do we do that? The answer is simple - keep it clean and lubricate it well. This sounds a simple process too but can be contradictory when the lube acts as a dirt-magnet...
A few tips...
Clean your chain often and well - I tend to leave the chain in situ on the bike and use plenty of good quality degreaser to get all the dirt and old oil off. Within the Great Britain team we have found a paint brush coupled with degreaser is the best combination. We also use a cut off water bottle which can be placed in the seat tube bottle cage, this keeps the degreaser close at hand and also reduces the chance of it getting spilt. Clean the ‘rings, jockey wheels and sprockets too. Wash the degreaser off and dry the chain before lubricating.
Lubricate the chain with a good quality bike-specific lubricant. The Tribologists (people devoted full-time to the science of reducing friction) have developed oils and additives which when used properly will make your drive-train more efficient and last longer. For wet or dry conditions always use a ‘wet' lube. Wet lubes penetrate the chain and get to the crucial roller/pin interface and stay wet resisting rain and mud intrusion to the chain - but they do attract dust (so wipe off any excess). In hot, dry conditions this can lead to a ‘paste' developing which can increase friction and wear - hence the importance of 1.
Get the final two tips from Mark, plus a Q&A on the subject in the British Cycling Insight Zone.
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